Heat sink

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What is a heat sink?

Heat sink is a kind of heat dissipation device for the electronic components in electrical appliances, mostly made of aluminum alloy, brass or bronze plate, fin, multi-fins and so on. Commonly used heat sink material is copper and aluminum alloy, both have their advantages and disadvantages. Copper conducts heat well, but it is expensive, difficult to process, heavy (many pure copper heat sinks exceed the weight limit of the CPU), small in heat capacity, and easy to oxidize. Pure aluminum is too soft to be used directly. For ordinary users, the use of aluminum heat sink is enough to meet the heat dissipation needs.

Heat sink material

Heat sink material refers to the specific material used by heat sink. As for the heat sink material, the thermal conductivity of each material is different. The thermal conductivity is arranged from high to low, namely silver, copper, aluminum and steel. But silver would be too expensive to use as a heat sink, so copper is the best solution. Although aluminum is much cheaper, it clearly does not conduct heat as well as copper (about 50% as well). At present, the most commonly used heat sink material is mainly copper and aluminum , both have their advantages and disadvantages. Copper has good thermal conductivity, but it is very expensive and difficult to process, too heavy (many full copper heatsink exceed the weight limit of the CPU), small in heat capacity, and easy to oxidize. While pure aluminum is too soft to be used directly, only the aluminum alloy used can provide enough hardness. The advantage of aluminum alloy is low price, light weight, but the thermal conductivity is much worse than copper. Some of the heat sink make good use of each strength, in the aluminum heat sink base embedded a copper plate.

How does heat sink work?

1. Heat absorption -- absorb heat from hot objects with small volume and area, so that the temperature will not rise sharply due to heat accumulation, leading to various undesirable consequences

2. Heat conduction -- transfer the absorbed heat internally to each part of the radiator, making full use of the large heat capacity and surface area

3. Heat dissipation -- heat is lost to the air through various heat exchange channels on the surface (mainly heat convection) (forced convection with fans is possible)

 

Heat sink types

The heat sinks are classified into different categories depended on different criteria. the criteria include materal, manufacturing process, application, cooling medium, etc. Let us consider the major types, namely extruded heat sink, skived heat sink, heat pipe heat sink, folded fin heat sink, boned fin heat sink, active heat sink and passive heat sink, liquid cold plate. Heat sink can be manufactured in a variety of ways, depending on the required performance, cost and volume.

1. Aluminum extruded heat sink

Aluminum is an excellent heat dissipation material widely used in modern heat dissipation. Most of the industry uses 6063 T5 high quality aluminum, which purity can reach more than 98%. It has high thermal conductivity ability, low density and low price, so it is favored by major manufacturers. According to the thermal resistance value and heat value of Intel and AMD cpus, aluminum extrusion manufacturers formulate the corresponding mold, the aluminum ingots are heated to a certain temperature, so that its physical shape is changed, and then out of the mold to get all kinds of original heat sink material we want; It can be used for cutting, cutting, cutting, polishing, deburring, cleaning, surface treatment.

  • Contact the heating core of the electronic components with the heat sink, and the heat is transferred through the natural convection of the air.

Natural convection cooling's advantages are simple structure, convenient installation and low cost. Although its heat transfer performance is not as good as that of forced convection cooling. but natural convection cooling is one of the common cooling methods. It has been widely used in society due to its advantages of no additional energy supply, reliable and stable performance, high safety, no noise and low manufacturing cost

Contact the heating core of the electronic components with the heat sink,and transfer the heat out the heat sink,the fan is then rotated to increase the flow of air, transferring heat from the heat sink fins to the surrounding environment by forced convection.

Forced air cooling's advantages are  simple structure, low price, safe and reliable, mature technology. LORI has strengthened the research and development of the application of forced air cooling technology, and realized the application of forced air cooling for the wind energy converters, Suppressorsphotovoltaic inverters, Rectifiers, Regulator,SVG, Cpu and other high power product.The air cooling heatsink structions have high power skived heat sink with fan or high power skived heat sink with heat pipe, which can greatly improve the heat dissipation efficiency.

 

Liquid cooling is through the structure of compact and relatively thin plate-like, strip metal internal layout of the fluid channel, so that the fluid and liquid cooling heat sink between the convection heat transfer.

Liquid cooling application refers to the use of liquid cooling plate (also known as water cooling plate) installed in the heat source, combined with heat exchanger and heat pump exchange, to dissipate heat in the way of fluid circulation. LORI has recently strengthened the research and development of liquid cooling technology, especially in the liquid cooling product production process innovation, makes the liquid cooling heat sink welding more stable, greatly reduces the liquid cooling heat sink leakage and other bad phenomena, improve the reliability of liquid cooling heat sink.

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