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Vapor Chamber Heat Sink

Vapor Chamber Heat Sink

What is vapor chamber heat sink?

The vapor chamber is mainly composed of the base plate (evaporation zone), the upper cover (condensation zone), the capillary structure in the base plate and the upper cover (capillary force to provide liquid reflux), the copper column copper ring between the base plate and the upper cover (providing liquid reflux from condensation zone to evaporation zone) and a small amount of working liquid. The combination of the vapor chamber and the aluminum or copper heat sink is called vapor chamber heat sink, and the easiest way to combine them is to soldering vapor chamber to the bottom of the heat sink. A more efficient method is to soldering a bunch of stamped fins directly to the surface of the vapor chamber. To improve dimensional integrity, these fins are usually connected to each other by locking pieces called zipper fins.

The working principle of vapor chamber

The working principle of vapor chamber is similar to that of the heat pipe, including four main steps of conduction, evaporation, convection and solidification. A vapor chamber is a two-phase fluid device consisting of pure water injected into a container filled with microstructures. Heat is transferred into the plate by heat conduction from the external high temperature area. The water around the nearby heat source will quickly absorb heat and vaporize into steam, taking away a lot of heat, then by using the latent heat of water vapor, when the steam in the plate diffuses from the high pressure zone to the low pressure zone (also known as the low temperature zone) and the steam comes into contact with the lower temperature of the wall, the water vapor will quickly condense into a liquid and give off heat energy. The condensed water flows back to the heat source by capillary action of the microstructure to complete a heat transfer cycle and form a two-phase circulation system in which water and water vapor coexist. The gasification of the water in the vapor chamber continues, and the pressure in the chamber is balanced as the temperature changes.The heat conductivity of water at low temperatures is low,however, because the viscosity of water will change with the temperature, so the soaking board can operate at 5℃ or 10℃ because the liquid backflow is by capillary force, so the soaking board is less affected by gravity, the application of the system design space can be any angle. Vapor chamber without power and without any moving components, is a passive device completely sealed. Vapor chamber container material mainly for oxygen-free copper C1020, working medium can be mainly for pure water, capillary structure can be sintered sintered copper powder, copper wire net. Vapor chamber shape can be planar, can also be for the 3D.

The Advantages of the using Vapor chamber

Vapor chamber production costs is much higher than that of the heat pipe with mature technology, thereforeit is often applied only to electronic products requiring small size or high heat dissipation, such as server, high-end graphics cards and advanced telecommunications equipment, and etc. Due to the current mainstream CPU thermal power design is generally within 100w. Lori has rich experience in the manufacture of vapor chamber heat sinks, and has produced various vapor chamber heat sink for customers, such as vapor chamber CPU heat sinks, vapor chamber server heat sinks, etc.

Vapor chamber heat sink design

The following shows the suggested operation conditions for typical applications. They are not necessarily the maximum capabilities of the vapor chambers.

Vapor Chamber Ambient temperature: 0 - 85 ºC

Power: 20 - 300 W

Heat Flux: Up to 300 W/cm2

Size (width and length): 50 to 200 mm

Vapor Chamber Thicknes:  3 mm and up

Vapor Chamber Flatness:  0.1 mm in every 25x25 mm area

Vapor Chamber Life (MTBF):  80000 hours

Through Holes: Allowed

Thermal cycling: Tested 200 cycles between -40 and 85 ºC

Vapor chamber heat sink example

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